Performance Evaluation of Power Sector
The claim that Pakistan has 24,375 MW installed capacity is true for books, magazines and newspapers, however the capacity lone cannot be used as an indicator to measure the efficiency of power system. The average net capacity factor of all performing power projects settled around 50%, however the in depth analysis below shows that this can be improved by improving the below average projects by additional financing, management efficiency and technical upgrades.
Non Performing Power Projects
While expert say, Pakistan has an installed capacity of 24,375 MW during this year, please don’t get confused, because 636 MW did not contribute a single Kilowatt hour to the national grid. During the analysis, we found that the average capacity factor of all the power projects in the country remained 49.41% for year 201314, however, if we take out the non performing projects from analysis, the capacity factor moves in positive direction and concludes 50.20% for the same period.
Following is the list of all projects which remained nonproductive for the economy during this time period.
Table 6: NonPerforming Projects
Power Station 
Technology 
Capacity MW 
Generation GWh 
Capacity Factor 
NGPS Multan 
STs 
195 
– 
0.00% 
Southern Electric 
DEs 
136 
– 
0.00% 
Japan Power 
DE 
135 
– 
0.00% 
Korangi TPS 
STs 
125 
– 
0.00% 
GTPS Shahdara 
GTs 
44 
– 
0.00% 
Garam Chashma 
Hydro 
1 
– 
0.00% 
DHA Cogen. 
GT+ST 
*94 
– 
0.00% 
Aggreko (Rental) 
0 
*54 
– 
0.00% 
Engro Polymer 
GTs+ST 
*70 
– 
0.00% 
AlAbbas (Coal) 
ST 
*15 
– 
0.00% 
Korangi Town GTPSI 
GTs 
*20 
– 
0.00% 
Site GTPSI 
GTs 
*20 
– 
0.00% 
TPS Pasni 
DE 
*17 
– 
0.00% 
GTPS Panjgoor 
GTs 
*39 
– 
0.00% 
Total 

636 
– 
0.00% 
*The plants are not operational now and therefore not included in total installed capacity & other analysis.
If we take out these nonperforming megawatts out of total installed capacity, we are left with 23,739 MW which contributed in the economy of the country during year 201314.
Power Projects with Low Capacity Factor
For the sake of analysis we have low ranked the projects which failed to achieve capacity factor above 30%.
There are 19 projects which were operational but couldn’t achieve the capacity factor above than 30% due to management inefficiency or technological constraints. Nameplate cumulative capacity of such projects is 3,032 MW and they were able to generate 4,788 GWh with an average capacity factor of 18.02%
Table 7: Power Projects with Capacity Factor below 30%
Power Station 
Capacity 
Generation GWh 
Capacity Factor 
PASMIC 
165 
9 
0.62% 
SPS Faisalabad 
132 
45 
3.89% 
GTPS Faisalabad 
244 
130 
6.08% 
FBC Lakhra (Coal) 
150 
112 
8.52% 
GTPS Kotri 
174 
170 
11.15% 
Saba Power 
134 
138 
11.75% 
Site GTPSII 
97 
113 
13.29% 
Gomal Zam 
17 
26 
17.45% 
Duber Khwar 
130 
227 
19.89% 
Uch PowerII 
381 
757 
22.67% 
IIL (4 MW) 
4 
8 
22.82% 
TPS Guddu (Units 14) 
640 
1,284 
22.89% 
KANUPP 
137 
293 
24.40% 
Shadiwal 
14 
31 
25.06% 
Halmore Power 
225 
504 
25.55% 
Orient Power 
225 
541 
27.43% 
Rasul 
22 
53 
27.48% 
TPS Quetta 
35 
85 
27.70% 
Zorlu Enerji Pakistan 
106 
263 
28.30% 
Total 
3,032 
4,788 
18.02% 
Out of these 19 projects, nine have capacity factor less than 20% and account 41% of total installed capacity of the list above. The average capacity factor of these 9 projects is just 8.90% and if we adjust the capacity with net capacity factor of all performing projects, it is as low as 220 MW as compared to nameplate capacity of 1,243 MW.
From the list above, 15 projects adding up 2,629 MW i.e. 86.71% of total capacity in this group belong to Pepco system, while the remaining are connected to KEL system. Four of the thermal IPPs, as well, could not achieve the capacity factor above 30%. The cumulative capacity of these IPPs is 965 MW and the average capacity factor resulted 22.93%.
Power Projects with Medium Capacity Factor
For the sake of analysis we have medium ranked the projects which have achieved capacity above 30% but failed to cross the average net capacity factor of 50.20%.
There are 23 projects which landed in this category with cumulative capacity of 11,253 MW, which are equivalent to 46.17% of total installed capacity in the country during year 201314. This group has generated 42,615 GWh, 40.36% of the total generation in the country during the same period. Eleven projects from the group, with a collective capacity of 2,929 MW could achieve capacity factor below 40%, thus averaging 34.95%. Whereas twelve projects of this group with collective capacity of 8,324 MW, achieved capacity factor above 40% and averaged to 46.11%.
Table 8: Power Projects with Capacity Factor below 50.20%
Power Station 
Capacity 
Generation GWh 
Capacity Factor 
Chichoki Mallian 
13 
37 
32.13% 
Pehur (PEDO) 
18 
51 
32.32% 
Renala 
1 
3 
33.77% 
Bin Qasim TPSI 
1,260 
3,766 
34.10% 
Nandipur 
14 
42 
34.22% 
TPS Guddu (Units 513) 
1,015 
3,115 
35.01% 
Jinnah 
96 
297 
35.29% 
Saif Power 
225 
723 
36.66% 
Sapphire Electric 
235 
760 
36.89% 
Jabban 
22 
74 
38.37% 
Jagran AJ&K 
30 
105 
39.93% 
TPS Jamshoro 
850 
2,982 
40.02% 
ISL (19 MW) 
19 
67 
40.23% 
Khan Khwar 
72 
261 
41.35% 
Korangi CCPP 
220 
799 
41.43% 
Chitral 
1 
4 
41.98% 
TPS Muzaffargarh 
1,350 
5,132 
43.37% 
Warsak 
243 
934 
43.85% 
Allai Khwar 
121 
471 
44.41% 
KAPCO 
1,638 
6,479 
45.12% 
TNB Liberty Power 
235 
943 
45.78% 
Korangi Town GTPSII 
97 
393 
46.22% 
Tarbela 
3,478 
15,178 
49.78% 
Total 
11,253 
42,615 
43.20% 
More than half of the list (12 projects) are hydropower projects with aggregate capacity of 4,109 MW, making 16.86% of total installed capacity in the country and 36.51% of this group. These hydropower projects generated 17,456 GWh contributing 16.53% to national grid and 40.96% to the collective generation of this group. The average capacity factor of all hydropower projects in this list summed up to 48.86% with a standard deviation of 5.56%. A majority of these hydropower projects (10) are owned and operated by Wapda.
Seven projects from the group are thermal power projects owned and operated by public sector. The total capacity of these projects is 5,548 MW, making 49.30% of total installed capacity of this group and 22.76% of total installed capacity of country. These projects generated 20,134 GWh, 47.25% of total generation of this group and 19.07% of total generation of country during 201314. The average capacity factor of these public sector thermal projects remained 41.40% with standard deviation of 4.39%.
Four projects from the group belong to KEL system, where three of them are owned and operated by KEL itself. Together these four projects add up 1,596 MW i.e. 6.55% to the total installed capacity of the country. However they could contribute merely 4.76% (totaling up as 5,025 MW) to the total energy generated in the country. These projects were able to reach the average capacity factor of 35.92%, with a standard deviation of 4.99%.
Power Projects with High Capacity Factor
For the sake of analysis we have high ranked the projects which have achieved capacity above the average net capacity factor of 50.20%.
Projects falling in this group represent 38.79% of total installed capacity of the country summing up to 9,454 MW. Together they generated 57,051 GWh contributing 54.04% of the total generation of country during year 201314. Average capacity factor of this group ended up at 68.84% with a standard deviation of 11.41%. High standard deviation is due to large and versatile projects included in this group where capacity factors ranged between 51.33% and 86.54%.
Table 9: Power Projects with Capacity Factor above 50.20%
Power Station 
Capacity 
Generation GWh 
Capacity Factor 
Dargai 
20 
90 
51.33% 
Gul Ahmed 
128 
582 
51.87% 
Kurram Garhi 
4 
19 
54.19% 
Habibullah Coastal 
140 
670 
54.59% 
MalakandIII (PEDO) 
81 
389 
54.79% 
Ghazi Barotha 
1,450 
7,008 
55.13% 
Davis Energen. 
11 
54 
56.00% 
HUBCO 
1,292 
7,086 
62.57% 
Pak Gen. Power 
365 
2,031 
63.48% 
Laraib Energy 
84 
470 
63.83% 
Anoud Power 
15 
84 
63.88% 
Chashma 
184 
1,031 
63.89% 
Lal Pir Power 
362 
2,081 
65.58% 
Mangla 
1,000 
5,872 
66.99% 
Rousch Power 
450 
2,760 
69.97% 
CHASNUPPI 
325 
2,000 
70.20% 
Engro Powergen 
227 
1,441 
72.42% 
Tapal Energy 
124 
798 
73.41% 
Bin Qasim TPSII 
560 
3,639 
74.13% 
Altern Energy 
31 
205 
75.44% 
Atlas Power 
224 
1,519 
77.36% 
CHASNUPPII 
325 
2,208 
77.50% 
Kohinoor Energy 
131 
890 
77.50% 
HUBCO Narowal 
225 
1,562 
79.19% 
Nishat Power 
202 
1,464 
82.68% 
Nishat Chunian 
202 
1,471 
83.07% 
Uch Power 
586 
4,314 
83.98% 
Foundation Power 
183 
1,359 
84.72% 
Liberty Power Tech. 
202 
1,520 
85.84% 
Attock Gen. 
164 
1,243 
86.46% 
Fauji Kabirwala 
157 
1,191 
86.54% 
Total 
9,454 
57,051 
68.84% 
Private sector thermal IPPs played a major role to uplift the performance of this group. There are 18 thermal IPPs in this group with accumulative installed capacity of 5,154 MW, thus making 21.14% of total installed capacity of the country and 54.52% of the total installed capacity of this group. During the year 201314, these thermal IPPs generated 32,861 GWh which is equivalent to 31.13% of total generation of the country and 57.60% of total generation of this group during the year. The average capacity factor of these thermal IPPs remained 72.73% with a standard deviation of 10.56%.
Out of these 18 thermal IPPs, ten operated using RFO as primary fuel while the remaining 8 used Gas as primary fuel. The IPPs using RFO as primary fuel have cumulative installed capacity of 3,369 MW, 13.82% of total installed capacity of the country and 35.64% of the installed capacity of this group. Together these RFO based IPPs generated 20,867 GWh during year 201314, 19.76% of total generation in the country and 36.58% of the total generation of this group. The average capacity factor of these RFO based thermal IPPs became 70.66% with standard deviation of 9.19%.
The IPPs using Gas as primary fuel have cumulative installed capacity of 1,785 MW, 7.32% of total installed capacity of the country and 18.88% of the installed capacity of this group. Together these Gas based IPPs generated 11,994 GWh during year 201314, 11.36% of total generation in the country and 21.02% of the total generation of this group. The average capacity factor of these Gas based thermal IPPs became 76.65% with standard deviation of 12.45%.
There are 24 hydropower project in the country but only 7 could make their place in this list. Out of these five projects are owned and operated by Wapda (Public Sector) and two belong to private sector. The installed capacity of these 7 hydropower projects summed up to 2,823 MW i.e. 29.86% of total installed capacity of this group and 11.58% of total installed capacity of the country. Total units of energy generated by these hydel projects is 14,879 GWh i.e. 14.09% of total generation in the country and 26.08% of generation of all projects in this group. The average capacity factor of all hydropower projects in this list remained 60.12% with standard deviation of 6.12%.